Greece is a country in southern Europe. Covering an area of 131,957 km2 for just under eleven million inhabitants, the country shares land borders with Albania, North Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey and maritime borders with Cyprus, Albania , Italy, Libya, Egypt and Turkey (the latter is the source of Greek-Turkish litigation in the Aegean Sea). The Ionian Sea to the west and the Aegean Sea to the east, parts of the Mediterranean Sea, frame the country, one-fifth of the territory of which is made up of more than 9,000 islands and islets, of which nearly 200 are inhabited. In addition, 80% of its territory is made up of mountains, the highest of which is Mount Olympus, whose summit rises to 2,917 meters. Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilization, homeland of the arts (theater, architecture), politics (Athens is the cradle of democracy), philosophy (Stoicism, Epicureanism, Aristotelianism) and sciences (mathematics, physics, medicine). Ancient Greece bequeathed to Europe a colossal cultural and linguistic heritage.
France is a transcontinental state. Its overseas territory extends into the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific Oceans as well as South America. The only country in the world to exercise sovereignty over territories spread over three oceans and two continents, it plays an important geopolitical role at the global level, thanks to an extensive network of embassies and consulates, and it has military bases on all continents. France has in the seas the second exclusive economic zone in the world, to which is added an extension of the continental shelf of 579,000 km2, and it is one of the leading countries in the world for the variety of its maritime environments and their biodiversity. In 2018, the population of France was approximately 67.8 million inhabitants, 65,018,000 in metropolitan regions, 2,777,200 in overseas regions.
Italy is a country in southern Europe. It is linked to the rest of the continent by the massif of the Alps. Italy makes a very important contribution to Western civilization: it is notably the cradle of Etruscan civilization, Magna Graecia, the Roman Empire, the Holy See, the maritime republics, humanism and the Renaissance. Existing as a unitary state since 1861 following the Risorgimento (Renaissance or Resurrection) led by the Kingdom of Sardinia, Italy has been a republic since the abolition by referendum of the Italian monarchy in 1946. It is a founding member of the European Union and the euro area. There are around 60 million Italians.